The Importance of Travel for Kids

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Experiencing life in different regions of the world can be an exciting and wonderful experience for children. Travel, especially for children, can be an enriching experience. Travel can also be an opportunity for parents to expose their children to the world and provide them with a valuable educational experience. From my personal experience, it opens up a whole new world of knowledge, providing children with a better understanding of the diversity of different cultures, languages, and ways of life. It’s an excellent way to relax and escape the stresses of everyday life. By traveling, children have the chance to see the world and experience new things, some of which are impossible to do at home. Travelling gives children the opportunity to see firsthand the things they learn in the books, on television, or at museums. For example, we learn about the Great Wall of China in textbooks. However, it’s a totally different experience to actually see the wall, the sheer size of the wall, and imagine its construction. Research has shown that travel has a deep impact on a child’s development. When children travel, their cognitive, physical, and social development is enhanced. Cognitive developments may be seen by the way children open their minds to new experiences, new environments, and new people. Being exposed to a different cultural environment empowers young people by providing them a context in which they can understand their own place in the world and realize who they are. Social developments in children travel can be seen in that their interaction skills and sociability are improved as a result of the new things they experience. For example, quiet and shy children may suddenly become more outgoing and talkative. They interact with other people more often and successfully. Also, while they are visiting the other part of the world, they make new friends through communication. Such an interaction may lead to a long-term, stable relationship between these children and therefore the distinct cultures. I still remember when I went on my first trip with my family. I have been fascinated by the new environment, different people, and what’s more important, I became more interested in the natural beauty of the world. The experiences were amazing, varying, and inspiring. Now as a university student, the trips I had when I was a kid are still fresh in my mind. First, children seem to appreciate the attractions that children like themselves are more likely to enjoy. I mean as a child, I prefer to play in Disneyworld instead of visiting some ancient ruins. It’s not that I don’t appreciate those ancient cultures and history, but I’m more interested in having fun. Such attractions provide more opportunities for children to exhibit independence. When parents provide them a relatively free and open environment, they have to plan their own holidays and that creates excitement. I can’t wait to see the praise and satisfaction in my parents’ eyes every time I suggested a fantastic and fun trip. Last but not least, travel can help parents to widen their children’s knowledge. In a new environment, children become more curious and they are eager to know what they don’t understand. They often think logically, work things out, come to a conclusion, as well as ask for their parents’ opinions. Such a learning process is great because children actually learn things which can’t be found in textbooks or from tests.

Broadening Horizons

Research has shown that travel has many benefits for children, including increasing their curiosity and helping to develop skills that will be useful throughout their lives. Another important reason why travel is important for children is that it helps to broaden their horizons by giving them the chance to see and experience different landscapes, climates, and cultures. Whether you are going for a walk in the countryside to see the changes that the seasons bring, taking a family holiday to a foreign country, or just going to the coast for the day, travel will give you and your child the opportunity to take in new experiences and sights. It’s often the simple things that children remember and value the most, like playing on a sandy beach or visiting a city to see the tall buildings and bright lights. New experiences such as seeing a rare animal or beautiful view for the first time will help to create lasting memories, and these experiences will help your child to develop a thirst for more travel and the desire to see what the world has to offer them. By visiting other countries and experiencing different cultures, children can begin to understand and appreciate the differences that exist between people, languages, and ways of life. As well as new experiences, travel also allows children to develop other useful skills. For example, being in new and unfamiliar environments will encourage children to build self-confidence. When children are given the opportunity to try new things and meet new people, they can develop the ability to adapt and be open to new ideas. These life skills will help them to cope more easily with the transition to adulthood and independent living, as they will already have experience of change and the increased resilience that comes with it. On a practical level, travel can also help children to develop important planning and organizational skills. By encouraging them to pack and prepare for a trip, children can develop skills and strategies that will be useful in everyday situations, such as the importance of being organized and thinking ahead.

Cultural Awareness

Regrettably, xenophobia is gaining ground in America and in other places of the earth. Opposite opinions and ignorance often give rise to worry and dissatisfaction. Numerous people like citizens of rural pockets in America, seldom have the possibility to meet foreign human beings and to travel outside their home country. Therefore, they don’t have the likelihood to turn out to be more cultured by conquering ethnocentrism and opening their minds to the globe with the aid of journey. The destiny of the country in an international world could be in a precarious state if this rash of paranoia will increase. If kids had that chance to travel and step by step take in other people’s customs, consider in moral relativism, and turn out to be culturally conscious, this fashion can be slowly diminished over time. As cross-cultural consciousness may want to probably be fostered via tour among Americans and human beings from different cultures, travel would equip US children and destiny leaders with a more tolerant and knowledgeable mindset in the direction of the relaxation of the world. This is the essence of cross-cultural awareness – to develop the capability to understand and appreciate a subculture different from a person’s very own and to develop self-awareness. In a child’s early stages of developing cross-cultural skills, tolerance and empathy are often engendered. Gradually, as he or she grows and learns, a more informed and accepting mindset develops. As the child continues to expand the horizons of his cross-cultural experiences, critical thinking and problem solving can be nurtured through his changing experiences with perfectly normal culture shock and the difference of different practices and lifestyles. These skills are essential grounds for the progress and development of this child into a successful and fully functioning member of the diverse global community.

Learning Opportunities

In addition to fostering independence, travel helps children to expand their horizons by experiencing history. The famous landmarks, historic sites, and museums are very important in our history. Through them, we are able to learn from our ancestors. When children travel through history, they get the experience of actually seeing it and learning from it. For example, the knowledge gained after a visit to a war museum cannot be compared to any other form of learning. Then the knowledge will be preserved for the future and will help with the confidence that excelling brings. When kids travel, they also have to learn to cope with unfamiliar environments. This helps to stimulate their problem-solving skills. Sometimes plans will not work as expected, so kids need to think on their feet. Learning which strategies work in different situations is really helpful in their intellectual and emotional growth. Stephanie Morgan, a mum and education consultant, says, “It’s through cultural awareness that you can work towards creating a caring and fairer society, where difference is not only tolerated but celebrated.” Because when kids learn about different cultures, it will help them to accept and respect people of all backgrounds. In an increasingly globalized world, having a sense of cultural awareness is important. When kids become more knowledgeable and open-minded about things that are not familiar to them, they are preparing to value and respect people’s differences and beliefs. Through learning different cultures, new language skills can also be gained. And the best way for kids to pick up other languages is through immersion. Children are like sponges; they will often soak up and remember anything new much quicker than an adult. If they are put in a situation where they need to speak to other people in a foreign language, then they will get by and understand more. Of course, children who have been traveling abroad will have firsthand experience on how to engage with people from different societies. With a comprehensive understanding of world geography, children can visualize how humans are spread across the earth’s surface. The variations between the types of settlement, the kinds of land use, and the economies of different places can all be seen and experienced. A good way to understand these geographical concepts is through using real-life examples. By applying knowledge that is learned in the classroom to an unfamiliar environment that is being traveled to, children are able to improve their geographical understanding.

Social Development

Travelling presents opportunities for children to build their social skills, as they constantly have to meet new people. Every time a child approaches a new person, they could be rejected. But, more often than not, children make a connection and this helps to build their confidence. This is particularly the case if children are visiting countries where a different language is spoken, as they experience the satisfaction of being understood in a different language, communicating in new ways. This lays the foundation for continued confidence in talking to or communicating with new people, acquiring further language skills and developing their social and emotional intelligence. In addition to building good global awareness, travelling can also encourage the development of a child’s sense of empathy. Every new place visited and experience encountered can give children a better understanding of the world and those that inhabit it. This can be particularly amplified when children see new and different species of animals that may need protection, are different in some way or where their habitat has been affected by humans. Far from being a holiday focusing on their own needs, travelling can help to understand ways of life and challenges different people and animals face, help them understand respect and make them aware of the needs of others. Enhanced communication is very much the same as building confidence and developing empathy; a child can start to move towards fluency of language and adapt themselves to different ways of communicative practices. Seeing and listening to different languages used in context can prompt questions and help a child to actively seek knowledge. Excited to communicate with someone in a language that feels new and interesting, confident in using it and understand the ‘praise’ of being multilingual. No matter the age, using languages and communicating effectively help build and maintain positive relationships with others. Also, sharing laughter and peace in communication help towards increased global understanding and interaction.

Building Confidence

For children who are more reserved or less adventurous at home, travel can be the perfect way to help them step out of their comfort zone and try new things. This is because travel presents new and unique experiences that can effectively boost a child’s self-confidence. For instance, trying new food, talking to locals or navigating a new city can be particularly daunting the first time. However, when children push themselves to try these new experiences, it can be a great way of proving to themselves that they are capable of doing things that they may have thought were too difficult. This can be a fantastic way to build self-assurance and challenge the negative beliefs children have about themselves. The benefits of building this sort of confidence can be felt across many different areas of a child’s life. For example, those who have a secure belief in their abilities are more likely to try out new things and be more willing to persist and work hard when they face challenges. Admissions tutor for the BSc Psychology at Middlesex University, Dr Craig Knight, argues that being confident does not just allow a child to do things such as make friends and try out for teams or clubs, but also allows them to not be held back by their inner beliefs. In this way, the opportunity to build self-confidence and self-esteem through travel can go a long way in contributing to a child’s social, emotional and cognitive development. Therefore, providing children with the opportunity to travel can be a hugely advantageous attribute to their development. However, it is important to note that it is the quality of the experiences that matter most rather than the actual amount of travel as a child. In fact, the Department of Education encourages parents and schools to prioritise a child’s personal development and to create a breadth to that development, suggesting that a weekend away in the countryside with the family may have very similar benefits to a week-long trip abroad with the school.

Developing Empathy

While travelling, children have many opportunities to meet people from different backgrounds, walk through new and unique environments, and even find themselves in situations they could not have predicted. Being exposed to these experiences in destinations all over the world, kids can naturally develop their ability to understand and share the feelings of others, also known as empathy. Innately, children are born quite self-centered and rely on their parents or main carers for guidance and help. However, as they grow, they start to develop mentally and emotionally, and become more and more independent. Whilst learning to put themselves in someone else’s shoes is a natural part of becoming an adult, being given a head start in mastering the art of empathy through travel will have positive effects across a child’s life and into their adult years.

Enhancing Communication Skills

On top of the fact that kids become more adaptable in conversing with others, travel can likewise help clean relational abilities. At the point when youngsters visit places where their language isn’t broadly spoken, for instance, in a French outing with English children, they need to impart utilizing non-verbal communication, outward appearances, gestures, and so on, helping them learn various techniques in sending their messages and furthermore understanding what others are attempting to pass on. Moving on from the challenges or complexities looked during their outings abroad, kids additionally build up a more grounded comical inclination and greater capacity in going up against any issues, perhaps coming from an error in language or misunderstanding on directions. By indicating high tolerance and effectively talking in an alternate language with local people, their certainty in imparting will be supported also. Through remarkable encounters, regular conversational connections, and learning in new culture, youngsters will consistently be urged to share those critical minutes and communicate their life changes. In the event that they could help the family arranging and making the most of their excursions, it will give the occasions significantly more important and blissful activities. Especially in the adolescent years, guardians who invest energy into this communication and sharing inescapable occasions and encounters may reinforce the family securities and connections over the long haul. All things considered, travel can have a great deal of effect in enhancing the social and relational aptitudes of kids. Kids may make more companions who originate from various foundations or improve their language capacity by essentially rehearsing with the camp chief during the mid year. It may change some unimaginable dreams and wants, yet the experience picked up, the delight of communicating through different strategies, and tireless comprehension of better approaches to talk and carry on will guarantee an incredible advance reaped in supporting kids’ social developments through travel. And keeping in mind that the article gives important instances of the beneficial outcomes, searching for proficient research papers encourages that travel assumes a basic job in the improvement of a kid to help the scholars’ supporting contents, second thoughts, and activities for a superior tomorrow.

Educational Benefits

Modern living brings a whole host of unique environments, some of which can only be fully understood by the experience that travel brings. From the Arctic’s frozen wilderness and the urban sprawl of a city to the crashing waves of a rocky coastline and the sun-kissed tranquility of a desert, the natural world and different human societies remain incredibly varied. By taking children to a range of attractions and new places, parents and educators can provide an escape from the monotony of relentless ‘space’ and artificial living that can often be found in developed countries. It provides children with fun, exciting, and vibrant experiences, from marveling at the sheer scale and beauty of a natural wonder to bartering with local tradespeople in a bustling marketplace. This can help to improve a child’s well-being by offering opportunities to create positive, happy memories through exercise, social contact, and a sense of freedom. In providing these enjoyable experiences and the promotion of an active lifestyle, the risk of a child falling into a ‘stagnant’ and uninspired outlook on life can be reduced.

Learning and discovery are essential elements of a child’s development and something that nature actively encourages through the everyday observation of the world around us. When children learn in a classroom, knowledge is passed to them in a passive manner. In contrast, travel provides an environment that naturally breeds curiosity—because no two experiences are the same. Whether it is through trying new foods, meeting new people, or navigating unrecognizable landscapes, the senses come alive, and a child’s mind is opened up to a wealth of learning opportunities. By encouraging a mindset of inquisitiveness through travel, children are more likely to carry on this outlook into adult life.

In today’s global society, the ability to speak other languages is not only a wonderful and incredible skill but also an important part of cross-cultural awareness and understanding. When children learn in an environment outside of the classroom, they can experience firsthand the real-world application and relevance of what they are learning. For instance, kids who are learning a second language may use their knowledge to order their own food, ask about cultural differences, or talk to a local person—thus enabling all four ‘key skills’ of language learning (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) to be used and reinforced. The result is that children’s confidence in using the language will be improved further, and they will gain an experience that is truly personal to them.

Through travel, children can discover the rich tapestry of the world’s social and natural history firsthand. Exploring ancient ruins, visiting museums, and navigating historic landmarks provides children with a far more vibrant and lasting learning experience than they could ever gain from a book or a classroom. This is because it helps to make the people, places, and times that they learn about in history as something ‘real’ by providing a context to their stories. This encourages kids to ask questions and explore their own understanding of the world in a way that is free from the structure and pressures of academia.

Experiencing History

I could still recall the feeling of standing in the amphitheatre in Pompeii like it was yesterday. It is impossible to teach the concept of an extinct civilization to a child in a classroom. However, as I looked around and saw the still preserved roads, the market stalls and the houses, everything that I ever taught or learnt from books just came to life. My daughter was clearly amazed and I took the chance to explain to her how the disaster of Mount Vesuvius suddenly stopped an advanced city in its track, yet preserved so much history for the modern world to learn from. I could see in her face that she was trying to process the information because that was something that she never experienced before. From that day on, we called Pompeii as the “time capsule city” and whenever the topic comes up, she would take the initiative to explain to her friends what she knows. When children visually see history unveiled before their eyes, they start to develop a sense of curiosity within themselves. More importantly, children begin to question the significance of history to our modern day and by using Pompeii as an example, it easily links to our National Curriculum. As well as the children, parents and teachers also gain a new perception towards the way in which they teach. I found myself talking more deeply to my daughter about the city of Pompeii and together, we learnt more about it. Every piece of history can play a crucial part in a child’s understanding of the world. However, as time is progressing, there are a worryingly vast number of historically rich locations in the world that are slowly disappearing. It is heartbreaking to know that future generations might never have the opportunity to see these locations in the same way as we did. This leads me on to my next blog – embracing different culture! Can’t wait to share my experience with you on that. Oh, and it was my daughter’s idea!

Learning Languages

Unconventional teaching opportunities arise when traveling abroad. Exposure to language arises through interactive study. Nowadays, it is very common to study a foreign language, and learning a language abroad can create a profound effect. Recent studies by the Academy for Educational Development (AED) and the Committee for Economic Development (CED) show that students who learn a language abroad acquire better language skills compared to those who learn in the classroom. The reason is simple. Students learn a language better when they are immersed in a culture that speaks the language. I can witness the truth of the studies that are mentioned. My little sister started to learn English since she went to Kindergarten. Yet, she wasn’t speaking English very much because she only learned that little bit of English in school. However, she has come a long way after our first-ever vacation in Hawaii. She started learning basic English words and phrases on the vacation. After the vacation, she continues studying English. And now, she speaks English fluently. When I asked her about how she learned English that quickly, she told me that she really started learning English in Hawaii and she enjoys chatting with local Hawaiian children, so she picks up the language quickly and naturally.

Encouraging Curiosity

With the limitless expanse of the internet and the latest technologies, parents have no trouble in finding creative ways to keep their kids entertained during school breaks. We have an increasing number of technologies such as mobile phones, virtual reality, artificial intelligence, and so on that are meant for young kids and students to keep up with the demands of academic development. But they are not without their dangers. It was reported that one in five children was a target for online paedophiles in 2017, and the youngest was found to be just three years old. By encouraging curiosity while traveling, you can free your kids from the bad influence of technology and help them develop a more attuned sense of judgment – to know what’s a trap and what’s safe. When we travel, the world is a never-ending puzzle that we and our kids can piece together the more we see and experience. Whether it’s learning about the cycle of life in Corralejo, Spain, or discovering how ancient Egyptians built their pyramids in person, travel is full of educational opportunities. Studies have shown that travelers are more open to new experiences. So why not broaden your child’s horizon from an early age? Kids need to build the skill of interactive learning through trial and error. When traveling, start to plan early and involve your child in the process. Show them on a globe how far you will be going, what kind of climate/wait they should be expecting, local custom and tradition, and any fun places for children and parents to enjoy together. All of these will help children think critically, interact with information, form their opinion, and articulate what they have learned. This will be a benefit for them in the long run when they start to study more complicated subjects in high school and university. I believe family fights with parents and kids are often related to each other’s bad use of technology, usually kids watching too much cartoons or playing games on phones. By keeping the root cause of the problem clear, that’s moving attention and getting closer to “Don’t just repeat what others said, question them. Show me why you think it’s correct!” This kind of independent learning mentality can help children settle better in new environments when they go up to higher education. Because the curriculum requires lots of discussion and debate points that will require students to form and articulate their own thoughts. So don’t wait, start to encourage your kids to seek their own inquisitiveness through traveling and make your family quality time a happier and healthier one.

Exposing to Different Environments

Finally, not only scenery can change with the geography. Different locations can provide different types of environment, such as beaches, mountains, forests, and deserts. From these places, children can personally experience the unique landscape and therefore easily learn the knowledge related to geography. For example, a child visiting the Grand Canyon can see how the Colorado River cuts its way through the rocks over the years and appreciate the work of nature. Also, he can touch and feel the stones and understand more about the scale and compare the difference between a canyon and a valley. From these activities, children can learn the knowledge better and gain a lot of fun from learning. In addition, they will be more willing to protect the environment since they have got the happiness from the travel and also the treasure of nature. How different cultures around the world adapted to the surrounding environment is another interesting knowledge children can learn from travel. From the mega cities with skyscrapers to the remote villages in the mountains, the way people design their houses, the type of transport, and the daily routines are all tightly related to the natural background. Children may easily feel curious about the strange lifestyles and therefore parents can take the chance to open their minds and lead them to understand different cultures. Besides, children may be exposed to knowledge of architecture, civil engineering, and traffic systems which are excellent topics to be talked about in the travel. Last but not least, different environments provide different exposures to microbes and bacteria. By traveling around the world, children can gradually build up a stronger immune system to prevent allergies and asthma. A research in Finland suggests that children who grow up in different environments have a lower risk of allergy development. In “Towards a better world and a better population” from J.W.B. Douglas’s paper, he similarly states that “allergy is a malfunction of the immune system caused by a breakdown in our natural defenses that are normally protective against infection”. When children are facing massive exposures to natural microorganisms while traveling, those microorganisms can boost their immune system and help to reduce the risk of allergy. All these cannot be achieved by traditional textbook learning. Through sharing the joy of travel with kids, parents can pass their values of protecting the environment and promoting cultural awareness to them. In addition, they can directly witness their children’s growth and tangible outcomes from the travel experience. Next time when you are planning a family vacation, do consider preparing not only an itinerary full of visits to museums and capitals but also an enjoyable and educational trip. As J.Pollock-van Kampen says, “vacations invite all family members to step out of the ordinary and into adventure”. Have fun and travel more!

Creating Lasting Memories

Travelling with kids helps to create lasting memories, valuable family memories that will be remembered for years to come. The experiences that parents and children share while travelling can foster a stronger bond and provide both generations with precious memories that will last a lifetime. These shared memories can strengthen the family relationship and provide a constant source of reflection in the future. Research suggests that children are most likely to retain the memories of family holidays and excursions. A study conducted by the Family Holiday Association found that three quarters of adults can remember the family holidays they took as a child more vividly than any other event in their formative years. Six out of ten insist that the memories of family holidays have never left them, inspiring a lifetime of reflection, happiness, and a greater understanding of their parents. A whopping 82% of adults also agreed that going on holiday as a family is the best way of creating fond, long-lasting happy memories. This demonstrates the importance of travelling together as a family unit and emphasizes the lasting impact that these memories can have. The study went on to find that over half of adults believe their life perspective and contentment has been influenced by the childhood family holidays that they so fondly remember. Finally, recent analysis of the study findings now suggests that these positive emotional and psychological benefits apply to all holidays regardless of where the destination is, showing that the main advantages lay in the experience of holidaying together. Oonagh O’Reilly, Director of the Family Holiday Association commented that “Holidays are often a child’s first exciting and stimulating experience in the big wide world outside their everyday life. For the parents, the chance to watch their children’s eyes open wide with wonder at new sights and experiences, sharing in their happiness, is immeasurable.” This just goes to show that the memories that are created while travelling can also impact on the relationship between parents and children.

Family Bonding

The excitement of discovering new places, enjoying new experiences, tasting new foods, and trying new activities together unites family members. The time spent together, the laughter and fun, and the shared experiences during a family trip foster warmer, more relaxed relationships. Not only do the family members communicate better during and after the travel, but the relationships between them continue to grow stronger too. This contributes to the reinforcement of enduring bonds among family members. Unlike the daily family routine, dinners and get-togethers that are usual in many families, which don’t necessarily promote effective communication, family trips provide an opportunity for being more engaged in group activities. During the trip, parents make the planning, toddlers follow, teenagers propose changes to the original plan. And each of the family members has to learn how to respect and understand the needs of the others, which is a valuable life lesson to everyone. Especially for single parents or families who are separated, the value of family bonding is even more significant. When kids split their time between two households, it’s not unusual that they feel that they have less time to bond with their family members. Therefore, the opportunity for parents and kids to connect and form strong, close relationships during a family trip is invaluable. Also, the sense of routine and familiar space that encloses them while they are at home adds comfort and security to the family. But it is not necessarily helping to strengthen the family bond. By exploring the unknown and experiencing life from a different perspective through travel, it does help to step out of the comfort zone and develop the connection between the family members. Studies examining the effects of family travel on family relationships found that the majority of both adults and children state that the most positive and long-lasting memories come from their family holidays. The shared experience during travel brings family closer together. And often the talking point, the memories, and the companionship that are established during a family trip last for a very long time. The sparks seem to fly all over again when the parents talk about the funny and interesting things that the kids have said and done during the holidays. This not only helps to keep the memory itself alive but also the good relationship and the bond between the parents. It has been found that two-thirds of the children liked to talk and reflect on the past travel experience with their family members. The feeling of cherishing the memories that they have developed during the family trip would certainly encourage and motivate continuous bonding with their family members. On the other hand, more than half of them revealed that they would like to undertake travel with their own child in the future. This implies that the positive experience and the family bonding effect during the travel would be passed from one generation to another.

Fostering Independence

One of the other main benefits of travel for children is that it nurtures independence. Whether it is finding their way around an airport, ordering food in a different country, or even communicating with someone who does not speak their language, travel offers children the space to learn how to cope for themselves. This can have a huge impact on their personal growth, helping them grow into more independent and capable adults. For older children, many travel companies offer child-friendly group travel experiences; these can be a fantastic way for children to learn the first steps of becoming more independent, as they will work with the supervision of adults but will have a chance to make decisions and spend time with other children their own age as well. It is very important for children to grow up being responsible for their own decisions and learning from any mistakes they make. The world is becoming increasingly connected and travel is becoming a crucial part of children’s growing up, but it is still important to allow children to develop at their own pace and take small steps into independence before planning any big travel experiences.

Appreciating Nature

As they spend more time with nature, kids begin to appreciate it more and more. Appreciation comes from understanding, and kids without experiences not only lack understanding but also the opportunity to appreciate the incredible diversity and beauty of the natural world. A vacation or trip that exposes kids to nature may plant the seed for an interest in preserving wildlife and the environment. This interest can then lead to a lifelong passion and possibly even a future career in the field of environmentalism or biology. Kids who appreciate nature will take care to preserve it for future generations and for their own future well-being. By allowing our children to experience the world to the fullest, we are investing in their understanding and appreciation for the world and we are fostering a respect for the more that enables our next generation of leadership to flourish, blossom and guide our planet to a beautiful age of environmental harmony.