Volcano Tourism

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Volcano tourism can be considered as any travel to an area with a historic occurrence of volcanic eruptions or with geological features caused by volcanoes. This sort of travel is essentially an addendum to travel around a specific area, since very few tourists would travel to specific areas just to witness a volcanic eruption. Tourists seek to see and experience various phenomena involving active volcanoes. People who live near an active volcano, and other people who live within the surroundings of a volcano, have to be conscious of society far and wide throughout the prehistoric era to workforce, and also the things they produce through the present and future. This will help to understand how people may have interacted with their volcano, and most importantly, tourists will like to see what affects the volcano had on the civilization, cultures, and livelihoods of those who have lived around it. And it is not just a large eruption that tourists find interesting, but the very presence of an active volcano provides an extraordinary geological display, even in smaller events such as eruptions of gas and ash. Tourism to see eruptions of Mount Ontake-esque (September 27, 2014 eruption) and also relatively non-destructive lava flows can help people to understand various levels of volcanic activity and how the intensity of that activity affects what is around the volcano. Many natural scientists and students wish to see and study various types of volcanic activity, and there are even those who wish to see a volcanic disaster area for volunteer purposes. Finally, tourists may want to hike to the summit of certain volcanoes. This can be potentially dangerous depending on the volcano, but tourists will find it challenging and very fulfilling to reach the highest points of volcanoes around the world. Volcano tourism has the potential to overlap with ecotourism or adventure tourism, but it is unique in the sense that the point of interest is a specific geological landform.

What is Volcano Tourism?

Volcano tourism is a kind of geotourism that is involved with the viewing of volcanic areas. Volcanoes have long been destinations for travelers, by virtue of their dramatic and often terrifying beauty, as well as the many legends and myths that have developed around them. In many cases, volcanic areas have become wildlife sanctuaries because human development has been precluded due to the risk of eruption. Most early volcano tourism was essentially a part of the then popular trend of “taking the waters” at health spas located at the volcanoes’ base, which looked to utilize the supposed healing properties of the thermal springs often found in volcanic areas. Early examples of volcanoes that mainly attracted tourists for their supposed health benefits of spring water are Vesuvius and Etna. A more modern development has seen national park services of various countries develop infrastructure in and around volcanic areas that provide the nature-seeking tourist with greater accessibility to the wonders of volcanic landscapes. This type of development is generally sustainable and low-impact ecotourism, which is viewed by many as the most viable option for tourists with an interest in visiting volcanoes. On the other hand, there are a large number of examples of volcanic areas becoming major tourist destinations due to mass tourism prompted by the phenomena of a major eruption. This is influenced by thrill-seeking tourists who wish to see an eruption in its aftermath and is punctuated with its often inappropriate volcano-themed tourist attractions. The latter mass tourism, particularly in LEDCs, is often criticized as too destructive due to its environmental damage and contribution to globalization. An example is the over 3 million tourists who visit the American-led Volcanoes National Park of Hawaii. The park was developed around Kilauea with the building of hotels, a volcano golf course, and ‘The Volcano House’, a hotel and restaurant positioned at the rim of Kilauea Caldera, which both contrast highly with the stated goals of sustainable ecotourism in volcanic areas.

History of Volcano Tourism

The primary and most important reasons behind early travel to volcanoes was scientific exploration. It was a belief that a volcano was the key to unlocking and understanding the most powerful of natural forces at work within our planet and within the universe. They wanted to understand the forces that cause volcanoes to erupt and to understand the greater implications for our planet. Many pioneers strove to make accurate observations and interpretations, some of which contributed vital information and laid the foundations for the science of volcanology and seismology. Only in the last few decades have we realized that the study of volcanoes is a very broad and complex science and that gaining vital knowledge about past and future volcanic activity is a very small percentage of the overall understanding of volcanic processes and the impacts on the environment.

Volcano tourism did not start as a business venture until recently. The earliest form of volcano tourism can be traced back to Italy and the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. The destruction and burial of the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum was the sole reason for the first explorers, for clandestine and scientific reasons. This sparked curiosity and fascination with the volcano and the catastrophic events that had taken place. The first recorded tourist to Vesuvius was in 1638. It was later in the mid-18th century that folk tore up to the crater wearing red cloaks and carrying umbrellas to escape the showers of red hot particles! Quite a contrast to today when they are turning people away from the summit for health and safety reasons.

Benefits and Risks of Volcano Tourism

On the other hand, voluntary exposure to risk is defended as being therapeutic in its ability to help sufferers reclaim a sense of control over their lives and engage in processes of meaning-making regarding difficult life experiences. By experiencing risk in a controlled setting, some people may recover lost self-esteem and establish a stronger sense of self, particularly if they can overcome the original failure that led to their suffering of a health issue. An empirical study conducted by Grasser and colleagues (2010) compared people who engage in risk sports with those who have experienced road traffic accidents or living with chronic illness/injury. The assumed difference was that the healthy risk-takers had already achieved successful psychosocial rehabilitation and were expressing a regained lifestyle. Results showed that athletes and adventurers reported the highest quality of life and found their activities and experiences to be highly meaningful. This level of satisfaction was an indicator of successful rehabilitation when compared to less risk-inclined groups who were still in the process of adjusting to their changed lifestyles.

Despite the dangers and hazardous eruptions, many people might not know about the benefits of a volcano. Volcanic ash, tephra, and pumice consist of very small, sharp, and hard materials that can be abrasive to the skin, eyes, nose, throat, and lungs. If an adequate amount of time passes, these materials can cause long-term health effects and keep people from rebuilding their lives in the affected areas. If in low enough concentration, they are viscous and pyroclastic flows can bury an area that is some distance from the volcano. Steep slopes at the base of volcanoes are an indicator for large lahars, which are a mixture of water, mud, and debris, and they can occur with little warning. Another potentially dangerous phenomenon is a rapid lowering of a lava lake, which can create a flow.

Popular Volcano Destinations

Mount Vesuvius is located in Italy and is known for being one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world. This is due to its close proximity to many towns and densely populated cities such as Naples and Herculaneum. Vesuvius is the only European mainland volcano to have erupted within the last century and is the most well known for its eruption in AD79 in which it destroyed the ancient town of Pompeii. This single event made Vesuvius what it is known for today and it still poses dangers to the people living in the surrounding area although there are now measures in place to be able to evacuate the people from the danger zones should there be another eruption. One of the advantages for tourists who wish to travel to Vesuvius is the good accessibility due to its close proximity to both Naples and Pompeii and the simple fact that it is one of the most well known and visited volcanic attractions in the world. Kilimanjaro has long been considered an international destination. The first well-documented ascent of Kilimanjaro was in 1889 and it has attracted mountaineers and adventurers ever since. Nowadays treks to the summit of Kilimanjaro are popular with tourists and the mountain brings in around $50 million US dollars annually from the tourism industry and is an essential source of revenue for the country. The mountain forms part of the Kilimanjaro National Park and is a protected area. Unfortunately, many of the forests on the lower slopes have been cleared to make way for farmland. It is threatened by the forces of deforestation, cultivation, and global warming, and there is speculation that the glaciers that are a key attraction to the summit could disappear completely within 20 years.

Mount Vesuvius, Italy

Mount Vesuvius is definitely one of the most famous volcano destinations in the world. The explosive volcano has a deadly history, erupting more than 50 times in the past hundred years. It is situated in the Gulf of Naples, in the Campania region, close to the city of Naples. The surrounding area is a huge national park, and people are still able to drive practically to the top in cars or buses. There are now many walks around the rim and the hardened lava paths on Vesuvius, and on a clear day the views over the bay of Naples are quite stunning. Unfortunately, you are unable to see the two towns Pompeii and Herculaneum which were destroyed by the eruption of 79 AD, as they are underneath the solidified lava flows. But it’s this that makes Vesuvius a more interesting destination. The chance to explore the towns and witness the perfectly preserved buildings and infrastructure in the state that time left is one of the most unique experiences in any travel destination. This makes Vesuvius an essential travel destination for anyone the least bit interested in history. Another volcano situated in Italy is Mount Etna, amongst the most active in the world. Etna is on the east coast of the island of Sicily, near the city of Catania. It has a recently new international airport built on the hardened lava from the 1974 eruption, which makes it quite easy to access. Like Vesuvius, Etna also has a deadly history, with an eruption in 1669 wiping out the eastern town of Nicolosi. Etna is unique because it is one of the most studied volcanoes in the world due to its frequent activity and accessibility in comparison with other volcanoes. There is easy access right to the main craters both by walking or cable car, and the terrain is similar to that of a moonscape. The views over Sicily and the Mediterranean are also quite spectacular.

Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

Mount Kilimanjaro is located in Tanzania, near the town of Moshi. It is a dormant volcano described as having three cones: Kibo, Mawenzi, and Shira. The highest point on Kibo, and the entire mountain, is Uhuru Peak, which is considered the highest point in Africa. The mountain is part of Kilimanjaro National Park and is a major climbing destination. The mountain has been the subject of many scientific studies because of its shrinking glaciers and disappearing ice fields. The Kibo summit crater is only 75 years old and the ash pit still emits gas. The Tanzanian government has taken several steps in hopes of protecting the heritage of Kilimanjaro. In 1976, the government declared the park a National Park and in 1987, a World Heritage Site. The park was expanded in 1989 to include the entire mountain. These efforts ensure the protection of the forests around the park as well as the creatures that inhabit the lower elevation areas. The park is considered one of the most beautiful wildlife areas in the world. Unfortunately, the forest on the lower levels is subject to heavy human activity and suffers from overgrazing and forest fires. This, combined with the shifting climate may severely impact the forest’s fauna in the future.

Mount Fuji, Japan

Mount Fuji is the highest mountain in Japan, a beautifully symmetric cone which is snow-capped for most of the year. It is a sacred mountain and an active volcano that last erupted in 1707-08. Mount Fuji is known as Fuji-san by the locals. Mount Fuji is 3,776 meters high and is the most famous mountain in Japan. Being 100 kilometers southwest of Tokyo, it can be seen from there on a clear day. The mountain is part of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park. The weather is very unpredictable, so climbers should be prepared for a rapid change in temperature and conditions. The temperature at the summit, even in the height of summer, plummets to 8°C with a wind chill taking it to below freezing. In winter times, the temperature plummets even lower, and thick fog cloaks the mountain in July and August. This can cause climbers to lose their way, and conditions can rapidly deteriorate. The climbing season officially begins in July and lasts until the end of August. Outside of this time, it is too dangerous to climb due to the harsh environmental conditions. The Taishiyama Route from Yoshiwara Sengen Shrine is one of the oldest routes up the mountain. Due to a violent eruption, it has become challenging for climbers. The route furthest to the east is the Murayama Route, a popular trail in the past but nowadays too inclined to weak efface and currently closed due to damage from typhoons and is under repair.

Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

Kilauea is the youngest and most active volcano on the island of Hawaii. It is almost 600,000 years old. The majority of the volcano is submerged beneath the sea, and one of its most recent and noteworthy occurrences was a large landslide from its marine slopes. This landslide set off a 9.6 earthquake in 1975. This is the greatest magnitude earthquake to have occurred in Hawaii in over 100 years. The east rift zone eruption started in January 1983, with the opening of a series of fissures that erupted along an 8-km long section. The activity has covered more than 100 km of the volcano’s surface, and the new lava flows have added more than 230 hectares of land to the southeast coastline. Kilauea’s proximity to populated areas on the southeast means it poses great risk to the residents and tourists in the area, and continuous activity means that its current and future impact is both economically and socially significant to Puna. Over the past decade, Kilauea has had periods of increased volcanic activity including the extrusion of lava flows and continuous eruptions that have significantly affected nearby communities and wildlife. The town of Kalapana was partly destroyed by a 6-month-long lava flow erupted from Kupaianaha vent between 1986 and 1992. Lava flows that emerged from the east rift zone eruption between 1990 and 1997 repeatedly threatened the town of Hilo. This led to the construction of a lava barrier to protect the town.

Volcano Tourism Activities

Watching volcano activities can be said to be a little bit dangerous. This activity can be done personally; however, it is not recommended to be done without guide escort. The best way to do this activity is by accessing the realistic information that can only be obtained through the real observation. Hence, the data that has been taken can be classified as primary data. This activity is very suitable for volcano researchers either from the university or just a private researcher. It will be easy to find the information related to the change of nature, landform, and many more.

Visiting the hot springs and geothermal spots is a perfect activity to relax and heal the fatigue after the long day activities. This activity is the safest to be done. In Japan, hot springs can be found around the volcanic area like in Hokkaido and Kyushu. This activity can also be found in Indonesia, especially in Java and also in Sumatra.

Photography is one of the moderate activities during the volcanic tour. It can be done until the visitors do the other activities. However, this activity gives a great opportunity by capturing any moments of the volcanic activities and nature to be transferred into the lively memorial. Photography will generate the top volcano tour photograph documentation.

Hiking and trekking is one of the dangerous types of activities. However, it is the most satisfying activity that can be done during the tour. This activity conveys visitors to the area as well as to connect directly with the object to be achieved. Generally, walking will pass through the foot of the trek and climb to the top. Walking could take a time of 1-2 hours. The people will pass through the tropical forest, savanna to the barren alpine.

Volcano tourism is not merely looking at an active volcano. These are one of the alternative and popular tourist attractions around the world. The adventure seekers are often planning a trip to volcanoes for volcano activities such as hiking, trekking, and many more. Through this kind of tourism, it helps the locals to increase economic development. There are various activities that can be done during a volcanic tour. Each of the activities will give a great experience and knowledge to the person involved. It ranges from adventurous activities to moderate activities. Here are some of the volcano activities.

Hiking and Trekking

The natural environment around many volcanic areas is quite unique, rich, and diverse. National parks or reserves often contain interesting flora and fauna, and people may be interested in special ecosystems such as cloud forests, typical of many tropical volcanic areas. Globalization has been a factor in attracting hikers and trekkers abroad to various destinations, and hence many people may choose to travel to different parts of the world to experience a change from the usual outdoor activities available to them.

At the lower level, hikers and trekkers will enjoy the scenic beauty of volcanic areas such as craters, old lava flows, volcanic lakes, and strange geological formations. This is an excellent chance to witness primary and secondary volcanic landforms in a relatively safe environment. This type of activity will be conducive to learning and many people will include an educational experience. Teachers and students may be particularly interested in experiencing volcanic areas as an adjunct to the in-class study of geographical studies and earth sciences.

This is widely regarded as the most popular way to enjoy time around a volcano. Many tourists will partake in this activity usually as a principal part of their holiday or perhaps as a secondary activity if they are attempting volcano photography. The level of hiking is dependent on the individual and many people will avoid the more strenuous multi-day hikes that will take in the summit of a volcano. That being said, there are definitely people that are specifically interested in hiking to the summit of a volcano; these people will most likely be attracted to an active volcano where they can witness various volcanic phenomena on the way to the top.

Volcano Photography

Volcano Photography can be divided into two categories: Scientific Volcano Photography and Volcano Post-vision. The primary goal of scientific volcano photography is to document volcanic activity in its various forms, whether it be to monitor eruptions or to document the changes in volcanic landforms over time. In some respects, all volcano photography of a certain eruption could be considered scientific. Post-vision photography is any photograph done after the event being photographed. This type of photography is usually undertaken by tourists as a means to capture the beauty and excitement of a volcano and can include simple images of tourists engaging in various tourist activities around a volcano, to a full-scale postcard campaign.

One of the best ways to capture the highlights of a volcano vacation is to bring a camera and take some photographs. The stunning scenery and unusual events that can occur around and within a volcano provide all sorts of great photo opportunities for tourists and scientists. “Volcanoes provide a compelling landscape and offer an opportunity to capture images of an awe-inspiring and powerful natural force at work. They offer a combination of beauty and destruction and their unpredictability can provide a series of unique moments.” (N. Whalley) Volcanoes are a natural wonder for the eye and the camera can capture that image so that it will never be lost.

Hot Springs and Geothermal Baths

Hot springs and geothermal baths are becoming more and more popular among volcano tourists. Basically, hot springs are a result of rainwater sinking into the ground on the mountainside. This, in turn, gets heated by the hot magma which is close to the earth’s surface and becomes lighter. The water then rises back to the earth’s surface and into pools where it is then used by tourists or locals to bathe in. Geothermal baths are man-made pools that are filled with water manufactured by the earth’s geothermal process. Both the hot springs and the geothermal baths have very similar chemical properties and both are said to have healing powers because they are rich in minerals like silica and sulfur. These minerals were dissolved from the rocks the water passed through and are known to cure skin diseases, rheumatism, arthritis, and various other inflammatory diseases. Any ailments that are associated with these diseases are said to heal by bathing regularly and the progression of the diseases will slow down. This is strongly believed in Japan, as many of the Japanese frequently bathe in the hot springs to relieve stress and soothe bodily pains. Nowadays, Japan has more than 2000 hot springs and it attracts a large number of tourists both domestic and international. With growing popularity, hot springs and geothermal baths have resulted in new tourist transportation and accommodation in areas with a lot of volcanic activity.

Volcano Watching and Guided Tours

The best thing about volcanoes is that they come in different sizes and shapes, each with its own way of behaving. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park is the most popular park in the world and offers unrivaled access to the continually active Kilauea Volcano. It is possible to observe many types of volcanoes or volcanic landscapes. Tourists who are interested in witnessing an eruption are best to consult with local tourist information centers to find out the safest and latest viewing options. Some volcanoes are always erupting but the type of activity can change from day to day. To witness a Strombolian type eruption or a lava flow such as the one into the sea from Kilauea, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, may require some hiking and we advise that seeing such activity should only be attempted with a guide or after consultation and approval of park rangers. It is also wise to remember that active volcanoes can be dangerous and it is important to assess the situation and consider whether viewing an eruption is worth the potential risks involved.

Volcano Museums and Visitor Centers

There are ample examples of volcanoes around the world today, and the attraction of tourists to them forms a growing tourism specialty. It is clear that the destruction caused by volcanic events offers a powerful base attraction for tourism – the extent to which this is exploited through promotion, interpretive devices and event construction is variable. Visitors to volcano sites are primarily interested in seeing and learning about the location’s physical phenomena including craters, calderas, lava flows, ash, etc. A very tangible geology field trip, with a not too distant and thrilling hazard/impact edge. They seek an educational experience and have long been drawn to volcanoes as spectacular field classrooms allowing an insight into the earth itself and the dynamism of the earth system. It is here, as the visitor steps beyond casual sightseeing, that we enter into the realm of geotourism where the specific geological and geomorphological features of the area are the drawcard. Volcano tourism falls within the adventure and eco-tourism categories, drawing certain types of travelers including scientist academics, students, and interested amateur geologists and naturalists. Not all are content to view landforms from a safe distance and for some, the thrill comes from putting on the hiking boots and taking a closer look. Paleodiversity is a central concept to much of geo and ecotourism and so the varied volcanic landforms also provide excellent terrain for hiking and exploration of flora and fauna.

Sustainable Volcano Tourism

Despite the potential global support for environmental conservation through tourism, the desire for short-term economic gains often puts strains on fragile environments. Overzealous tourism development may result in damage to the resource it is intended to promote. Native involvement is key to achieving sustainable tourism on native land, as research has shown that it can nurture a sense of pride in their culture and encourage efforts to recover and preserve traditional culture and enhance cultural vitality. This could include sharing the history of the land, the principles and customs of their ancestors, and traditional arts. The potential economic benefits from tourism to native communities are also quite clear. In countries with a history of discriminating against indigenous cultures, tourism can provide a greater sense of hope and a future for native communities.

Sustainable tourism has become increasingly important within the tourism sector, and tourists are more frequently seeking meaningful and educational experiences that will not only provide them with a memorable vacation but will also contribute to the economy and environment of the host country. If well planned, tourism can be a positive force for conservation by providing an alternative to destructive utilization of land, generating economic benefits for the local community, and providing the financial resources to protect natural and cultural heritage. Tourism has the potential to increase awareness and interest in the environment, which may lead to political action to protect natural resources. Global support is affirmation for international understanding and may reduce the effect of political disputes on a region’s environment.

Conservation and Preservation Efforts

To improve practice, IC Tourism is involved in a number of projects aimed at the responsible management of sites of high biodiversity or cultural value. This is often done in conjunction with various international conventions aiming to protect these sites and ensure a future for them through sustainable tourism. The Governance Risk and Best Practice work improves the understanding of the use of standards and certification mechanisms as vital management tools for the reduction and/or mitigation of the negative impacts on tourism. This project is driven by the realization that although millions are spent on tourism development in UNESCO designated sites, often few of these funds are actually allocated to the management of the impacts or to the identification of best practices for development. IC Tourism is attempting to be an influential voice in determining that there is a future for iconic sites such as these.

During the demonstration, IC Tourism is using the example of Virunga to advocate for the basic protection of any site vulnerable to tourism. They hope that better practice here can be extended to future projects.

While it is an unpleasant fact that many governments only take conservation seriously once sites are established as national parks, this system can still lead to a great deal of exploitation in the time before designation. It must be stressed that even national parks are not safe from the threat of government-sponsored exploitation. In many countries today, national parks exist on paper only, without significant legal backing. A few such parks include the Virungas and Kahuzi-Biega in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and even the world-famous Virunga is threatened by its partial allocation to oil drilling. Australia’s Kakadu National Park is also still under threat of uranium mining and forestry.

Community Engagement and Local Benefits

Community engagement and local benefits often go hand in hand, with the benefits coming back to the community through engagement and vice versa. Tourism can be a significant way for any given community to engage with others and also reap benefits from economic development and continued cultural exchange (Holden, 2005). For some though, the introduction of tourism can lead to increased frustration in dealing with outside visitors and the long-term benefits may not seem to outweigh the initial stress of adapting their community to outside influence. In some cases, it can give new momentum for communities to unite and reflect on their own identity and what they have to offer others (Lever, 2008). A more sustainable form of community tourism allows for locals to be involved without changing their own lifestyle to accommodate visitors. This can be done through providing arenas for locals to share their customs and even assist in teaching visitors their ways, for example, traditional forms of dance, arts and craft, and food preparation. In Madang, Papua New Guinea, the community has staged various forms of “cultural displays” demonstrating traditional dress, food, and dance to visitors. Communities engaging in tourism and tourists have the potential to benefit each other in their understanding of different cultures. A better understanding of culture can be encouraged if the host community has pride in their customs and the visitor is hosted in an environment where those customs are still being practiced, not simply displayed for tourist purposes. An increased awareness of one’s culture can be an incentive for its preservation, and continued cultural exchange can lead communities to adapt and possibly enrich their culture through new ideas received from visitors (Lever, 2008). This has been the case in Buhoma, a village located in close proximity to the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Uganda. The Batwa Tribe, which was originally a forest dwelling tribe but displaced when the forest became a national park, is now attempting to re-establish their culture within the community in order to teach tourists the traditions they once practiced in the now protected park area.

Responsible Tourism Practices

So why bother with all this? The reason being is that if tourism must occur in some form, avoiding the “Safari” form and allowing interaction between host and visitor can produce benefits for both parties. In the case of a traditional Maasai homestead, the visit of a group who are genuinely interested in learning about the culture and not just looking at it could foster an intercultural exchange between the Maasai and the visitors, perhaps resulting in the formation of friendships, the dispelling of stereotypes, and increased global awareness of the Maasai and their way of life. This can benefit the tribe directly through promotion of their cause as well as indirectly from alternative forms of income, allowing them to continue their traditional way of life and live in areas with tourism potential without fear of eviction to make way for agricultural or commercial projects.

The difference in this form of tourism with relation to obtaining a better understanding of other cultures has noted positive potential effects. A good example of this is the case of New Zealand and the Maori people. Much of modern New Zealand’s identity is closely tied to the influence and interactions of the British settlers and the native Maori. Subsequently, modern New Zealand has been juxtaposed to Western civilization and valuable contribution from a culture that has been largely ignored by the global community. This has resulted in a large number of tourists to New Zealand whose aim to better know these people often results in large-scale tourism of traditional Maori areas with very few actual Maori being encountered. However, the increased regard and respect for Maori culture has resulted in New Zealand having government backing for the teaching of Maori traditions and language and the establishment of many cultural sites and meeting houses in which tourists and indeed New Zealanders themselves can gain a better understanding of what has been lost.

We must be careful here, as at this point in time this can degenerate into “Human Safari” tourism. An example of this is visits to tribal cultures in various locations in, for example, Africa, but the negative impact of this is much documented with visits of this nature serving only to satisfy morbid curiosity and unwittingly erode the culture they are purporting to study and potentially spread disease to these isolated peoples.

Some possible negative aspects of volcano tourism and their potential solutions have been outlined above, but there may be a better solution. One possible method of improving this form of tourism is to incorporate these visitors into the idea of a “Global village”. The concept is that if we understand the cultures and lives of others, we are less likely to harm them.